Precast, one of the building blocks of the construction sector, is known as a concrete system. This structure, which can be used in various construction processes such as exterior façades, industrial areas, and landscaping, can be preferred with its Shell Panel and Insulated options. The preferred method offers benefits in terms of budget, time, and quality of living space.

What is Precast?

Precast, used as a concrete system, is composed of washed silica sand, white cement, chemical concrete additives, and fiberglass products with alkali resistance as its material content. In structures where insulation is desired, the Insulated option can be used, while the Shell Panel option can be used in places where insulation is not needed.

Shell panel is preferred for areas where insulation is not desired. Production processes are completed in a shorter time, providing time savings as well. In its Insulated option, it provides benefits in terms of sound, water, and heat insulation. Although the production stage takes longer, it will provide comfort in these areas in the future and allow for less consumption both financially and in terms of resources.

How is Precast Made?

Precast is obtained with the materials it contains. These materials can be obtained by mixing with water in the most appropriate ratio. Simple processes are carried out in a factory environment in sequence. The required materials are poured into molds that can be used for further processing afterwards.

The curing process of the precast is carried out here. It is expected to take the desired shape by pouring into molds in the desired design. Precast concrete is preferred mainly in the foundation part of structures, and standard designs can be produced. However, in other processes where precast is used, such as stairs, window sills, exterior facades, door lintels, planters and vases, corner coverings, molds are obtained according to the desired designs.

How Did the Precast Concrete Industry Start?

Precast, which not only adds aesthetic appearance to the structure it is used in but also becomes economical over time, has become one of the preferred choices in the construction sector. Moreover, this economic aspect reflects not only to the constructing firm but also to the user. In fact, precast is a very old method historically.

It was discovered to be used in infrastructure such as water channels, tunnels, and passages during the Roman period. It is stated that this method was first used in the early 1900s. With the bridge built in Philadelphia, which belongs to America, in the 1950s, it has become even more remarkable in the sector. After that, this method started to be utilized in many countries to take advantage of its benefits.

Its ability to provide durable usage for many years is appealing economically. Unlike poured concrete in construction, precast, which is poured into molds in the factory, can be obtained in any season and condition and can be easily assembled.

Production Process of Precast Concrete Elements

Generally, in the construction of a building, it is a known process to pour concrete in the construction area and wait. However, this situation has changed with precast. Moreover, it brings many advantages with it.

Since precast construction is prepared in molds of predetermined dimensions before construction begins, all that remains is to wait for the assembly part. It saves both money and time for the construction company and the user. The production process of precast requires a closed factory area and the required materials.

Firstly, the materials are poured into concrete molds and cured. At this stage, different materials can be added to the mixture if necessary to make the curing material act faster.

Connection of Precast Concrete Elements

The assembly process of precast concrete can vary depending on the area where precast is used. Precast concrete can be connected to each other with two different methods depending on the area of use.

Screwing method: If you are going to use this method, you must embed the steel connections in the concrete during the pouring process in the production process of precast. This method requires more attention. We can see this method in areas requiring bridges or connections.

Connection with concrete: Here, protrusions are left as rings as a steel formwork besides the steel formwork. If desired, reinforcement pouring process can be carried out between them. We can see such operations in beams and columns.

Production of Precast

The contents forming the precast are cured in a factory environment and then divided into molds of predetermined dimensions. This system, which is made mold according to the size of the area to be applied, can be used not only in building construction or exterior facades but also in many areas such as garden walls, metro constructions, decoration areas.

The production process progresses in 4 steps. Firstly, an examination is made in the area you have. The examination step is one of the most important steps of this process. In the second step, design processes are carried out within the specifications of the area. In the third step, the molds to be used are prepared for casting. Mold such as fiber, wood, and silicone can be used according to preference. In the final step, casting processes are carried out.

Precast Assembly

Prepared precast materials complete the assembly process in 3 steps. Firstly, the products are lifted in the working area with the help of a crane. Mobile or fixed cranes can be used. Connection is made with steel connection products and anchors.

Since precast can also be used outdoors, these products are coated with zinc to prevent rust and decay in this connection. In the last step, filling and silicone processes are performed in the remaining gaps. The assembly process of precast products is completed with the preferred color.

Where is Precast Used?

It is generally used in building construction and exterior facades. Some examples of these areas are;

  • Bridges and parking lots,
  • Hospitals and business centers,
  • Educational institutions,
  • Stadiums and sports complexes,
  • Building foundation infrastructure,
  • Wall and landscaping area
  • Community and highways (to prevent noise).

Regions Where Precast is Used

When we consider precast both in terms of material content and construction process, we can see a wide range of options in usage. Since it can be obtained in a short time, resistant to impacts and vibrations, shows high sensitivity to heat with A1 non-flammability feature, provides heat and sound insulation, it is preferred in many places such as individual residences, institutional buildings, workplaces, parking lots, hospitals, malls, metro, sports facilities, etc.

  • Hospitals: Precast facade offers an advantage with its quick delivery feature in healthcare institutions such as hospitals. Required healthcare facilities become ready in a short time with precast. It provides comfortable use with sound and heat insulation on a solid structure.
  • Shopping malls and parking areas: Precast advantages are utilized to ensure order in areas such as shopping malls and parking lots, which are among the most preferred areas of the community. Spaces are created in desired dimensions. Special forms with desired insulation can be obtained within shopping malls.
  • Bridges: Precast offers a wide range of options in basic structures as much as facade cladding. In processes requiring careful connection like bridges, very strong structures are built with the screwing method of precast. Many examples have been preserved to this day using this method, maintaining their robustness.
  • Government institutions: Government institutions can meet options reflecting both architectural culture and durability with precast. Nowadays, precast processes have been implemented in the construction of many new government buildings.
  • Tourism and sports facilities: Sound insulation, heat insulation, and aesthetic appearance required in areas such as hotels, health and sports facilities can be achieved with precast as desired. With the processing advantage of precast, more original projects are created in areas where aesthetic appearance is desired, such as social activity areas, soundproofing between rooms, stairs or planters, vases, column heads.
  • Noise Barrier: Precast provides more soundproofing in noise barrier constructions encountered more frequently on highways compared to other methods.
  • Individual residences and workplaces: Precast concrete is used in the basic structure in offices, workplaces, and individual residences, and precast facade cladding processes are utilized in exterior areas. Molds can be applied to the structure as desired, such as window, door edges, and floor skirting with precast soffit processes. With 3D visual projection according to user preferences, the structure to be obtained can be seen before construction.
  • Infrastructure connections: A robust structure is created with precast in areas such as tunnels, culverts, or metros. Especially considering the historical use of precast in tunnels in Rome and the examples of these structures that have survived to the present day, it can be stated that precast is durable for many years.

Advantages of Precast Structure

Precast products are cured with strong components in a factory environment. They are in a durable form. They are resistant to all weather conditions. They are waterproof, wind-resistant, and provide heat insulation. Thus, they contribute to fuel savings. They can be produced in desired molds, and color and form preferences can be used in any desired area. They are also successful in sound insulation.

They prevent inter-unit noise in collective housing such as apartments. Since they are produced under factory conditions, production is continuous. Assembly processes are also simple. They save time. They can be used easily in construction processes throughout the year.

With their lightweight form, they do not burden the structure and do not shrink the space used. Beonsan has achieved the desired success in every structure it has built with precast usage and has left valuable works. You can examine the references section on our website for precast processes.

Working Examples

Bilgi Al